Heat a large dutch oven or pot over high heat. When the pot is very hot, add bison and brown it, stirring often for 5 minutes. Add onion and carrot, and cook until both begin to soften, about 5 minutes. Add ½ cup water to deglaze the pan, scraping brown bits from the bottom of the pan as the water evaporates.
Add cauliflower, bell pepper, and garlic, and cook until vegetables begin to soften, about 5 minutes. Add cumin, chili powder, vinegar, tomatoes, and beans along with 1 cup water. Bring to a boil; reduce to a simmer, cover and cook, stirring occasionally, until vegetables are fork tender, about 45 minutes. Serve garnished with chopped cilantro.